Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a type of cancer that starts in the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system. In this type of lymphoma, tumors start for a cell type called lymphocytes. They are a form of white blood cell.
In 2018, the estimated number of new Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma cases was 74,680 in the US. In the US, 71.4% of patients survive after 5 years or more of being diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. This means out of 100 patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, about 71 patients have survived the disease for 5 years or more.
There are certain factors that increase the chances of having Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
There are certain symptoms and signs associated with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These include painless enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, underarms or groin, belly discomfort/swelling, pain in a patient’s trunk, shortness of breath, coughing, feeling tired all the time, higher body temperature, sweating at night, unplanned loss of weight.
There are certain tests that a doctor might use to see if a patient has non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
The treatment options for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include the following:
“Cancer Stat Facts: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.” National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute, 2019, https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/nhl.html
“Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.” Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2019.
Web links about Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000581.htm
Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is a disease of the lymph system. The lymph system is a part of the immune system. This disease is caused by irregular cells in the lymph system. The irregular cells do not grow like normal lymph cells.
In 2018, the estimated number of new Hodgkin’s Lymphoma cases was 8,500 in the US. In the US, 86.6% of patients survive after 5 years or more of being diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This means out of 100 patients with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, about 87 patients have survived the disease for 5 years or more.
The things that raise the chances of having Hodgkin's lymphoma include:
Symptoms of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma include: swelling lymph nodes in the neck-groin or underarm, constant feeling of tiredness, increases in temperature, sweating at night, unplanned loss of weight, irritated and scratchy skin, effects of alcohol are more pronounced, and pain after alcohol consumption near lymph nodes.
Based on a patient’s personal/familial medical history, a doctor may conduct tests to establish if there is a diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
“Cancer Stat Facts: Hodgkin Lymphoma.” National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute, 2019, https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/hodg.html .
“Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease).” Mayo Foundation for Medical Education
and Research, 2019.
Myeloma is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells. Specifically, it affects the plasma cells. Plasma cells create antibodies. These antibodies help a patient’s body find germs and fight off infection.
Myeloma occurs when unhealthy or cancer cells gather in bone marrow. These cancer cells overcrowd the normal blood cells. The cancer cells cannot make normal antibodies, instead they make irregular proteins. These irregular proteins can cause problems in the body.
In 2018, the estimated number of new myeloma cases of 30,770 in the US. In the US, 50.7% of patients survive after 5 Years or more of being diagnosed with myeloma. This means out of 100 patients with myeloma, about 50 patients have survived the disease for 5 years or more.
Factors that can increase your chances of having myeloma include:
The signs and symptoms myeloma can be different for every person. There may not be signs early on for patients with myeloma. When and if there are symptoms, a patient might experience bone aches, nausea, constipation, a loss of appetite/hunger, foggy thoughts or confusion, fatigue, repeated infections, patients may feel more thirsty than usual, patients may lose weight, legs may feel weak or numb.
There are several tests that can help diagnosis myeloma. Some of these tests may be conducted by your provider if they suspect Myeloma. Your doctor may find myeloma by coincidence with some routine tests. These tests include:
Before a transplant there are a few steps that are taken. Progenitor or Stem blood cells are collected. Chemotherapy is then used to kill off the sickly bone marrow cells. The healthy stem cells are then injected back into the body and help to recreate healthy bone marrow cells.
“Cancer Stat Facts: Myeloma.” National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute, 2019, https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/mulmy.html
“Multiple-Myeloma.” Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2019, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-myeloma/symptoms-causes/syc-20353378 .
Web links about Myleloma:
Patient education: Multiple myeloma symptoms, diagnosis, and staging (Beyond the Basics)
Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Patient Version
What Is Multiple Myeloma?
Myeloproliferative diseases is a term used for a cluster of illnesses. These diseases are when the bone marrow creates more red/white blood cells or platelets then the body needs. Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis together comprise the majority of myeloproliferative diseases.
The total number of people living with myeloproliferative diseases (prevalence rate) in the US is estimated to be 29,5709. This estimation is based on 2010 information.
In the US Medicare population, 53.2% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) survive after 5 Years. This means out of 100 patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), about 53 patients have survived the disease for 5 years. In the US Medicare population, 53.1% of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) survive after 5 Years. This means out of 100 patients with polycythemia vera (PV), about 53 patients have survived the disease for 5 years. In the US Medicare population, 18.2% of patients with myelofibrosis (MF) survive after 5 years. This means out of 100 patients with myelofibrosis (MF), about 53 patients have survived the disease for 5 years.
There are certain risk factors that can increase the chances of having Myeloproliferative Diseases.
There are certain symptoms and signs showing that a patient may have myeloproliferative disease. Patients may have anemia, shortness of breath with activity, loss of strength or tiredness, paleness, reduction in hunger, prolonged bleeding from minor cuts due to low platelet counts, purpura-black/blue pinpoint marks on the skin where bleeding has occurred under the skin, sinus-skin/urinary infections owing to a reduced number of low white blood cells that fight infection.
Myeloproliferative disease typically cannot be cured. Treatment typically tries to fix the irregular blood tests. If a patient has no symptoms, with a doctor’s consultation, the patient may decide to take the watchful waiting approach. This means the patient will not be on treatment but they will get frequent evaluations and undergo diagnostic checks to monitor the progress of their disease.
“Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version.” National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute, 2019. https://www.cancer.gov/types/myeloproliferative/patient/chronic-treatment-pdq.
“Prevalence.” MPN Research Foundation, 2019. https://www.cancer.gov/types/myeloproliferative/patient/chronic-treatment-pdq.
“Survival Patterns in United States (US) Medicare Enrollees with Non-CML Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN).” Price et al. 2019.
“Myeloproliferative Neoplasms” Cancer Network-Oncology, 2019
“Myeloproliferative Disorders Signs and Symptoms” University of California San
“Treatment Options” Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, 2019.
Web links about Myeloproliferative Disorders
Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version
Overview of Myeloproliferative Disorders
Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Chronic myeloproliferative disorders
Myelodysplastic syndromes are a cluster of diseases produced by dysfunctional or irregular blood cells. Myelodysplastic syndromes arise when there are irregularities in the spongy areas of the bones where blood cells are created, known as the bone marrow. Myelodysplastic syndromes are found in about 10,000 people per year in the US.
Based on the risk group (revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) risk groups) of a patient’s specific disease, the median survival period for patients can range from 8.8 years (very low risk) to less than a year (very high risk). A patient should discuss their risk group with their provider to get a median survival period specific to them.
Median survival is a way to determine the potential results of a disease. It is the time after diagnosis in which 50% of patients are still alive and 50% have passed. It is a middle value. Fifty percent of the patients will live longer than the median survival period, and 50% of the patients will not live past the median survival period.
There are factors that increase the chances of having Myelodysplastic Syndrome.
The symptoms associated with Myelodysplastic Syndromes include the following: feelings of tiredness, shortness of breath, uncharacteristic pastiness/paleness due to anemia (low blood cell count), uncommon bruising/bleeding due to low platelet counts in the blood, petechiae (tiny spots on the skin caused by bleeding under the skin), repeated infections due to leukopenia (a low number of white blood cells in the blood).
If a doctor thinks a patient has myelodysplastic syndrome, s/he may conduct tests to confirm a diagnosis. The tests could include several things.
If a patient has no symptoms, with a doctor’s consultation, the patient may decide to take the watchful waiting approach. This means the patient will not be on treatment but they will get frequent evaluations and undergo diagnostic checks to monitor the progress of their disease.
“Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version.” National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute, 2019. https://www.cancer.gov/types/myeloproliferative/hp/myelodysplastic-treatment-pdq#_1 .
“Survival Statistics for Myelodysplastic Syndromes.” American Cancer Society, 2019. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/myelodysplastic-syndrome/detection-diagnosis-staging/survival.html .
“Myelodysplastic syndromes.” Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2019.
Web links about Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Patient education: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in adults (Beyond the Basics)
Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version
Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)
What Are Myelodysplastic Syndromes?
CML is a type of cancer that starts in the blood forming cells of the bone marrow and invades the blood. Leukemia cells tend to build up over time but many people don’t have symptoms for at least a few years. During that time, the cells can invade other parts of the body, including the spleen. CML can also change into the fast growing acute leukemia. Most cases occur in adults, and it rarely occurs in children.
CLL is one of the most common forms of leukemia in adults. One kind of CLL [early stage low and intermediate risk (described later)] grows very slowly and rarely needs to be treated. People with this type of CLL survive an average of 15 years or more. The other kind of CLL (high risk) grows faster and is more serious. People with this kind of CLL live an average of about 8 years.
AML is one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. The American Cancer Society’s most recent estimates are about 13,780 new cases in the US, mostly in adults. About 10,200 deaths will be from AML for the year 2012. The average age of a patient is about 67 and it affects more men than women. Although AML is a relatively rare disease, accounting for about 1.2% of cancer deaths in the US, its incidence is expected to increase as the population ages. AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.
ALL is the most common type of cancer in children occurring between the ages of 2 and 5 years and adults over the age of 65. It is the most successfully treated childhood leukemia. In ALL, the DNA in the diseased cells is damaged and the cells cannot mature beyond the early stage in their life cycle. These immature (blast) cells reproduce very rapidly and take over the bone marrow so it cannot produce healthy blood cells and platelets. These low counts of disease fighting white cells can lead to infection, and bruising or bleeding from the low levels of platelets. Immediate treatment is required because of the rapid progression and accumulation of the malignant cells, which then spill over into the bloodstream and spread to other organs of the body.
Leukemia & Lymphoma Society
List of frequently asked questions from patients and families.
National Cancer Institute
Information about aftercare, including link to a booklet "Life After Cancer Treatment."
Be The Match (National Marrow Donor Program)
"Role of the transplant caregiver" describes what a caregiver should expect in his/her role, how the role changes over time, and what the caregiver can do to advocate for the patient.
A Guide for Caregivers
Published by staff at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.
Finding financial assistance
Links to organizations that have a financial assistance program for patients and families.
Cancer Support Community
Ten tips for cancer caregivers that will help them take care of themselves while caring for someone with cancer.